cow - baqaratun
ox - thawrun
to write - kataba
house - baytun
the boys - al-awlaadu
student - Taalibun
teacher - ustaadun
Arabic Personal Pronouns
I - anaa, for example: anaa katabtu - I wrote.
thou (masculine) - anta, for example: anta katabta - thou wrotest.
thou (feminine) - anti, for example: anti katabti - thou wrotest.
he (masculine) - huwa, for example: huwa kataba - he wrote.
she (feminine) - hiya, for example: hiya katabat - she wrote.
we - naHnu, for example: naHnu katabnaa - we wrote.
you (pl. masculine) - antum, for example: antum katabtum - you wrote.
you (pl. feminine) - antunna, for example: antunna katabtunna - you wrote.
you two (dual masc and fem) - antumaa katabtumaa - you two wrote.
they (masc) - hum, for example: hum katabuu - they wrote.
they (fem) - hunna, for example: hunna katabna - they wrote.
they two (dual masc) - humaa - humaa katabaa - they two wrote.
they two (dual fem) - humaa - humaa katabataa - they two wrote.
Note: The above are just examples in order to show how the pronouns and
verbs are used. Normally, the pronoun is not used. Instead, the verb
indicates the pronoun from its suffix, e.g., in the "katabtu" the suffix
"tu" shows that it is the first person singular. Thus, no need to say the
Personal pronouns are usually used as subjects of nominal sentences or
again in questions to represent the subject. For example,
anaa Taalib - I am a student, and
hal anta ustaad? - Are you a teacher?
Possessive (attached) Pronouns
Certain suffixes are attached at the end of the words to make them possessive
Pronoun - Possessive attachment - Example:
I - iy - baytiy - my house
you (m) - ka - baytuka - your house
you (f) - ki - baytuki - your house
he - hu - baytuhu - his house
she - haa - baytuhaa - her house
we - naa - baytunaa - our house
you (masc pl.) - kum - baytukum - your house
you (fem pl.) - kunna - baytukunna - your house
you two (masc and fem dual) - kumaa - baytukumaa - you two's house
they (masc pl.) - hum - baytuhum - their house
they (fem pl.) - hunna - baytuhunna - their house
they two (masc and fem dual) - humaa - baytuhumaa - they two's house
Attached pronouns with verbs
Everthing is same as the above. Only difference is that the -iy changes to -niy.
Arabic Demonstrative Pronouns
this (masculine, singular) - haadhaa, e.g., haadhaa-l thawr - this ox, or
haadhaa thawr - This is an ox. Please be careful, "haadhaa-l thawr" is not a
sentence. It is a phrase. But, "haadhaa thawr" is a complete sentence.
"haadhaa SiraaTun mustaqiymun" - this is a Straight Path (Qur'an, Yasin
surah, ayat 61)
this (feminine, singular) - haadhihi, e.g., haadhihi-l baqaratu - this cow, or
haadhihi baqaratu - this is a cow.
"haadhihi jahannamullatiy kuntum tuu'Aduuna" - this is hell which you were
promised, (Qur'an, Yasin surah, ayat 63)
haa'ulaa'i (plural) - these, e.g., haa'ulaa'i-l-awlaadu - these boys.
that (masculine, singular) - dhaalika, e.g., dhalika-l thawru - that ox, or
dhalika thawr - That is an ox.
"dhaalika taqdiyrul'Aziyzil'Aliym" - that is the Decree of the All-Mighty,
the All-Knowing (Qur'an, Yasin surah, ayat 38)
that (feminine, singular) - tilka, e.g., tilka-l baqaratu - that cow, or tilka
baqaratu - That is a cow.
'ulaa'ika (plural) - those, e.g., 'ulaa'ika-l-banaatu - those girls.
Note: plural Demonstrative Pronouns are only used for humans. For
non-human plurals, the feminine singular is used.