Reading the Qur'an is very easy. First you have to leasrn the alphabet and memorize the letters. There are three diacritics that goes above and under the letters and gives letters the a, i, and u sounds
1. The first diacritics which goes above the letter is called Fathah. It looks like a forward slash, i.e., "/" with little bit bent towards the right and little smaller. Let's say this comes over the letter b, then it gives the letter b, the "ba" sound. When it comes over the letter t, it gives the letter the "ta" sound. So with this explanation you can do the FATHA Exercices now.
2. The second diacritics again looks like the forward slash but it goes under the letter and is called Kasrah. It gives the letter the "e" (or "i" sound in the word "bit"). Let's say it goes under the letter b, then it gives the letter the "be" sound. Please go and do the KASRAH exercises now.
3. The third diacritics that goes above the letters is called Dammah and it gives the "u" sound to the letter. It looks like the greek letter gamma sign inverted but smaller in scale. Please go and do the DAMMAH Exercises now.
There are three more diacritics that are doubles of the fathahs, kasrahs and dammahs. They again go above and below the letters same as the previous three we just learned above. They look like double forward slash above and below or inverse double gamma sign. They come at the end of the words and give the -an; -en; and -un sounds respectively.
4. For example let's assume the word "walad" ends with a double fathah. Then it gives the "waladan" sound. See the example: waladan
5. In the case of double kasrah, double forward slash goes under the letter and again comes at the end of the word and gives the -en (-in) sound. See the example: Zulumaatin
6. Double dammah again comes at the end of the word and goes above the letter and gives -un sound. For example see: Hujjatun or junaaHun or rajulun
7. The next diacritics goes above the letters. It looks like a small circle and is called "sukun" or "jazm". This diacritics generates a stopping or silent sound for the letter. For example, consider the English word "kiss". The "s" sound is silent. This is generated in Arabic by putting the small circle over the letter "s". See the example: jismi where the letter "s" is produced like a stopping sound on the letter "s".
8. Next diacritics is called "shadda" and looks like a small "w" over the letter. This makes the letter repeated. For example, the word "letter" in English includes two "t". This is represented in Arabic by writing one "t" and placing the small "w" over it. See the example: lillaahi where small "w" comes over the letter "l" and also the sign of fathah comes over the "w" indicating that it will produce doubled "a" sound. See also the example: Hujjatun where the "a" sound is produced over repeated "j" and example: yuHibbu where the "u" sound is produced over repeated "b".
9. Aliph without any diacritics above or below. It comes after the letter to make the letter to be read in an extended fashion for the letters with fatha. See the example: idhaa
10. Letter "y" comes under the letter with kasrah so that the letter would be read in an extended -ee fashion. (I use -iy instead of -ee in the Quran transliteration but it is to be pronounced or read in an extended -ee like in English word "bee".) See the example: fiyhi The letter y (in this case two dots side by side) comes under the letter "f". Another example: jamiy'An Normally the letter "m" with kasrah would be read as "mi" buth when two dots comes then it is read as "miy" which extends the -mi sound by one letter y.
11. Letter waw comes after the letter with dammah so that the letter would be read in an extended fashion with two -uu. See the example: wujuu
12. A small vertical line comes over or on the side of the letter with fathah so that letter would be read in an extended -aa fashion. See the example: waasi'Un
13. A small "less than" sign comes after the letter with kasrah so that the letter would be read in an extended -ii fashion. See the example: ajalihii
14. A small comma like sign comes after the letter with dammah so that the letter would be read in an extended -uu fashion. See the example: lahuu
15. The letter "y" comes with an extended small vertical line over the y and this comes after a letter so that the letter would be read as extended -aa. See the example: bilunthaa